We use there is and there are to express that something exists.
We use there is for singular and there are for plural nouns.
- There is one student in the classroom.
- There are four mobile phones on the table.
- There is a beggar on the street.
- There are many guests in the party.
We also use There is with uncountable nouns:
- There is milk in the glass.
- There is some salt in the jar.
- There is water in the tank.
The contraction of there is is there's.
- There's a laptop on the desk.
- There's only one guest in the party.
You cannot contract there are.
- There are eleven goats the farm.
- There are five boys in the room.
The negative is formed by putting not after is or are:
- There is not a machine in workshop.
- There are not seven children on the street.
- There is not a tree in the park.
- There are not two lions in the zoo.
We usually use contractions when speaking.
- There's not = There isn't
- There are not = There aren't
There aren't with Any
When we want to indicate a zero quantity of something exists we use there aren't any.
- There aren't any guests at the party.
- There aren't any trees in the park.
We also use this structure with uncountable nouns:
- There isn't any water in the tank.
- There isn't any sugar in the jar.
To make a question is / are is followed by there.
Again we use any with plural questions or those which use uncountable nouns.
We also use there is / are in short answers.
- Is there a refrigerator in the supermarket? - No, there isn't.
- Are there any trees in the park? - Yes, there are.
- Is there a security guard in the bank? - Yes, there is.
- Are there any empty rooms in the house? - No, there aren't.
- Is there any ice-cream in the freezer? - Yes, there is.
How Many with Are There
If we want to find out the number of objects that exist we use How many in the following form:
How many + plural noun + are there (+ complement).
- How many trees are there in the park?
- How many guests are there in the party?
- How many countries are there in Asia?
- How many teams are there in the tournament?