Past Perfect Tense
The past perfect tense is used to show an action which has occurred in past (usually, a long time ago) and action which has occurred in past before another action in past.
I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past and especially a long time ago)
The students had gone before the teacher came. (The first part of sentence “The student has gone” is sentence of the past perfect tense, it says about an action which occurred before another action in past which is “the teacher came”. The second part “the teacher came” is sentence of the past simple tense. So such a sentence which express an action in past before another action in past comprises two parts where the first part of sentence is the past perfect tense)
Rules. Auxiliary verb “had” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used in sentence
Structure of sentence
• Subject + had + 3rd form of the verb + object
He had got dispute with his wife.
Father had retired.
•Subject + had + not (short contraction hadn't)+ 3rd form of the verb + object
He hadn't got dispute with his wife.
Father hadn't retired.
• Had + subject + 3rd form of the verb + object
Note: Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had”
Had he got dispute with his wife?
Had the father retired.
Interrogative Negative Sentences
- Hadn't + subject + 3rd form of the verb + object
Hadn't he got dispute with his wife?
Hadn't the father retired.
Want to study further? Click on any of the following tenses.
- The present simple tense
- The present progressive tense
- Present perfect tense
- Present perfect progressive tense