Types Of Conjunction in English Grammar

Types of Conjunction - Detail and Examples

A word that connects words, phrases, clauses or sentences is called conjunction. e.gand, but, or, nor, for, yet, so, although, because, since, unless, when, while, where are some conjunctions.

Examples:

     He tried but did not succeed.
     He is not going to school because he is sick.
     Ali and Maryam went to the seminar.
     He thought for a moment and kicked the ball.
     I waited for him but he didn’t come.
     You will remain ill unless you take medicine.
     We didn’t go to the market because it was raining outside.

Single word Conjunction: Conjunction having one word.
       e.g. and, but, yet, because etc.
Compound Conjunction: Conjunction having two or more words.
       e.g. as long as, as far as, as well as, in order that, even if, so that etc

Types of Conjunction

There are three types of conjunction

  • Coordinating Conjunction
  • Subordinate Conjunction
  • Correlative Conjunction

Coordinating Conjunction

Coordinating conjunction (called coordinators) joins words, phrases (which are similar in importance and grammatical structure) or independent clauses.

Coordinating conjunctions are short words i.e. and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.

Coordination conjunction joins two equal parts of a sentence.

  • Word + word 
  • Phrase + phrase
  • Clause + clause 
  • Independent clause + independent clause.

Examples:

Word + word: She likes ice cream and juice.
     Phrase + phrase: He may be in the room or on the roof.
     Clauses + clause: What you do and what you listen sitting alone. 
     Independent clause + independent clause: The cat jumped over the mouse and the mouse ran away.

In the following examples, coordinating conjunctions join two words of same importance.

      She likes pizza and burger.               (pizza and burger)
      I bought a bat and a ball.          (bat and ball)
      He may come by bike or car.           (bike or car)

In the following examples, conjunction joins two independent clauses. Independent clause is a clause which can stand alone as a sentence and have complete thought on its own.

      I called him but he didn’t receive my call.
      I advised him to quit smoking, but he didn’t respond.
      He got ill, so he thought he should consult the doctor.
      He shouted for help, but nobody helped him.
      He wants to become a doctor, so he is studying Biology.

Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. A comma is used with conjunction if the clauses are long or not well balanced. 

If both clauses have same subjects, the subject of 2nd clause may not be written again.

Examples:

     She worked well and got reward.
     The player stopped and kicked the ball.
     He got  ill but didn’t go to doctor.
     Maryam opened the book and started to read.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions (called subordinators) join subordinate clause (dependent clause) to main clause.

e.g. although, because, if, before, how,  once, since, till, until, when, where, whether, while, after,  no matter how, provided that, as soon as, even if

      MAIN CLAUSE + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
      SUBORDINATE CLAUSE + MAIN CLAUSE

Subordinate clause is combination of words (subject and verb) which cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. Subordinate clause is also called dependent clause because it is dependent on main clause. Subordinate clause usually starts with relative pronoun (which, who, that, whom etc).  Subordinate clause gives more information in relation to main clause to complete the meaning.

Subordinating conjunction joins subordinate clause to main clause. Subordinating conjunction always come before the subordinate clause, no matter the subordinate clause is before main clause or after the main clause.  
Examples:
      He does not go to library because he is not well.
      I will call you after I reach my home.
      I bought some gifts while I was coming from my office.
      They played football although it was raining.
      Although it was raining, they played foot ball.
      As far as I know, this situation is very tough.
      I have gone to every concert since I lived in London. 
      You can get high grades in exam provided that you work hard for it.

Correlative Conjunction

These are paired conjunctions which join words, phrases or clauses which have reciprocal or complementary relationship.

The most commonly used correlative conjunctions are as follows

     Either … or
     Neither … nor
     Whether … or 
     Both … and
     Not only … but also 

Examples:

      Neither Ali nor Salman passed the exam.
      Give me either a cup or a glass.
      Both red and yellow are attractive colors.
      I like neither tea nor coffee.
      He will be either in the room or on the roof.
      Ali can speak not only English but also French.

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