Kinds of Pronoun - English Grammar
A word that is used instead of a noun is called pronoun. e.g. he, she, it, they, his, her, him its etc.
Ali is an intelligent student.
He goes to school daily.
He studies a lot.
He is preparing for exams.
He will get high marks in examination.
In the above paragraph pronoun “he” is used instead of noun “Ali”. If we do not use pronoun in above paragraph we will have to use the noun “Ali” again and again. So, the purpose of pronoun is to avoid the repetition of a noun.
Examples: He, she, it, they, you, I, we, who, him, her, them, me, us, whom, his, its, their, your, mine, our and whose, myself, himself, herself , yourself, which, this, that these, those, are the pronouns which are mostly used.
Pronoun can be divided into following groups.
- Personal Pronouns: e.g. i, you, He, she, it, they, who, me, him, her, them, whom
- Possessive Pronouns: e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs
- Reflexive Pronouns: e.g. myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, ourselves, themselves
- Reciprocal Pronoun: e.g. each other, one another
- Relative Pronouns: e.g. who, whom, whose, which, that
- Demonstrative Pronoun: e.g. this, these, that, those
Kinds of Pronoun
There are five kinds of pronoun in English language.
1. Personal Pronoun
2. Possessive Pronoun
3. Reflexive Pronoun
4. Relative Pronoun
5. Demonstrative Pronoun
Personal pronoun modifies a particular person or thing or group.
Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you), or the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them).
He needs help.
The pronoun “he” in above sentence describes a person who needs help.
Use of Personal Pronouns
|3rd Person||He, She, It||Him, Her, It|
She is beautiful.
They are playing hockey.
He sent me a gift.
It is raining.
We love our country.
The teacher appreciated them.
I met him yesterday.
He gave her a mobile phone.
Did you go home?
Possessive Pronoun indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/person to another thing/person.
e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs, hers
This book is mine.
The pronoun “mine” modifies the relationship between book and a person (me) who possesses this book or who is the owner of this book.
|3rd Person||Hers, his, Its|
That car is hers.
Your book is old. Mine is new.
The pen on the table is mine.
The smallest cup is yours.
The voice is hers.
The car is ours not theirs.
I have lost my camera. May I use yours?
They received your letter. Did you received theirs.
Note: Possessive adjectives (my, her, your) may be confused with possessive pronouns. Possessive adjective modifies noun in terms of possession. Both possessive adjective and possessive show possession or ownership, but possessive adjective is used (with noun) to modify the noun while Possessive pronoun is used instead (in place of) a noun.
This is my book. (Possessive adjective: “my” modifies the noun “book”)
This book is mine. (Possessive pronoun: “mine” is used instead of noun “to whom the book belongs”)
Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subject’s action affects the subject itself.
e.g himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself are reflexive pronouns.
Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction between the subject and an object.
|3rd Person||He, She, It||Himself, Herself, Itself|
I do work myself.
You should think about yourself.
They prepared themselves for competition.
She pleases herself by winning the prize.
He bought a laptop for himself.
He locked himself in the room.
He who loves only himself is a selfish.
Note: Reflexive pronoun can also be used to give more emphasis on subject or object. If a reflexive pronoun is used to give more emphasis on a subject or an object, it is called “Intensive Pronoun”. Usage and function of intensive pronoun are different from reflexive pronoun.
For example: she herself started to think about herself.
In the above sentence the first “herself” is used as intensive pronoun while the second “herself” is used as reflexive pronoun.
See the following examples of intensive pronouns.
Examples: (Intensive Pronouns)
I did it myself. OR. I myself did it.
She herself washed the dishes.
He himself decided to work in New York.
She herself told the whole story.
Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to the other. or
Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects work in same way towards each other, or, more subjects work in same way to one another.
For example, Ali loves Sana and Sana loves Ali. we can say that Ali and Sana love each other.
There are two reciprocal pronouns
- Each other
- One another.
Ali and Salman are talking to each other.
The students gave books to one another.
The people helped one another in hospital.
Two boys were pushing each other.
The truck and the bus collided with each other.
The students in the class complimented one another.
Relative Pronoun modifies a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it.
Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences.
Example: This is the person, who argued with her.
In this sentence the word “who” is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun (the person) which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (this is the person) and more information (he argued with her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun(the person).
Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are “this is the person” and “who argued with her”.
Examples: The most commonly used five relative pronouns are, who, whom, whose, which, that.
“Who” is for subject and “whom” is used for object. “who” and “whom” are used for people. “Whose” is used to show possession and can be used for both people and things. “Which” is used for things. “That” is used for people and things.
This is the girl who got last position in college.
Adjective is a word that describes noun.
The boy whom I met yesterday is a nice guy.
It is the planning that makes us succeed.
The boy who is laughing is my enemy.
It is the boy whose father is engineer.
The car which I like is black.
Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things.
e.g. this, that, these, those.
These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long distance/time.
Short distance or time: This, these.
Long distance or time: That, those.
Demonstrative pronouns “this and that” are used for singular thing while “these or those” are used for plural things.
This is black.
That is heavy.
Can you see these?
Do you like this?
Ali brought these.
Those look beautiful.
Have you tried this.